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40 Isaiah Goolsby added a codicil to his will on June 12, 1821 stipulating that he did "give grant, confirm and deliver unto said Althey Goolsbe and the heirs of her body, and have her parents or guardian until she comes of lawful age, be in charge of one negro girl, Louisa and her future increase with which I do warrant and defend...". Judging from the date of this codicil, Goolsby may have amended his will after he learned of Aletha's birth in Amite County. Three years later he would add another graddaughter, Aletha's cousin, to his testament. Isaiah Goolsby's Louisa would live to be transferred to her new, young mistress. Goolsby must have died died in early 1828 for his will was probated in June and an inventory taken of his belongings in July of that year. The Wilks county appraisal team valued the slave Louisa at $225; she may have been a young teenager for two other slave women were valued at $350 and the highest price for an adult male slave in this inventory was $450. (Margarette G. Gaissert, Genealogy and History of Golsby, Goldsby, Gouldsby, Goolsby, and Related Families, [Washington, GA: Wilkes Publishing, 1990]. The April 1832 chattel transaction recorded in the Amite County conveyance book listing Isaiah Goolsby as the grantor and Aletha Gooslby as the grantee may have been the final transfer of this slave to Aletha in Mississippi. (Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol I, p. 259.)
41 A history of the Goolsby family indicates that Randall V Goolsby had not died, but rather divorced his wife Elizabeth and returned to the town of Washington in Wilkes County, Georgia where he remarried a Sabry Patton and raised another family. However, there is no record of any divorce in Amite County and the Wills and Administrations book clearly contains the inventory of the estate of "Randall V Goolsby, decd.," dated April 28, 1823. (Wills and Administrations, Vol II, p. 171-73) Had there been a divorce, furthermore, it is unlikely that Randall would have left his daughter behind in Mississippi with no other relatives except his former wife. Whether by death or divorce, this marriage was dissolved for in July 1823 Elizabeth Hudson Goolsby married John Gunby of Amite County. (Amite County Marriage Record)
42 Orphans Court Record, in Casey and Otken, Amite County , Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 375. While this researcher had originally assumed that this transfer of guardianship indicated that Elizabeth Hudson Goolsby had died, further study indicated that Elizabeth had remarried to a John Gunby within a few months of her husband's 1823 death.
43 Several other estate files for children in Aletha's station and situation indicate the hiring of tutors, the purchase of school books, or school tuition. It could be that Aletha's guardians had decided that at age fourteen her education was complete. Many of the other items could also have been purchased to outfit her hope chest for she would be married within the year. (Amite County Archive File 50.)
44 Elizabeth and Gunby would have three sons and must have continued to live in the same part of the county as her daughter Aletha. After Gunby's 1864 death, Elizabeth married as her third husband Georgia native William Jenkins in 1870. Jenkins was seventy-two years old and had survived the war with $2000 worth of land. (1870 U.S. Census.) He lived only until 1875 leaving Elizabeth Hudson Goolsby Gunby Jenkins a fairly wealthy widow. She survived until 1896 when, at the age of 96, she left an Amite County will detailing an estate that was worth nearly $3200 including land and stock in the St. Charles Rail Road. (Will of Elizabeth Jenkins, 1896, Amite County Will Book, Vol II, p 300; Inventory in Amite County Archive File 96.)
45 Not only were Aletha and Elizabeth Goolsby Gunby members, but some of their slaves were baptized there. "On Lords Day, 2 November [1834], received by experience Rose, a servant belonging to Aletha Goolsbe [sic], and baptized." (Causey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol II, p. 267.).
46 The only surviving document in the file of Eldridge D. Atkinson is the final settlement of his estate dated October 16, 1849. It records tax receipts from 1843 and 1844 and that three parcels of land were sold in 1845, 1846, and 1847 for a total of $870.74. (Amite County Archive File 2)
47 Andrew Jackson's aunt Temperance Jackson Wilkinson and stepmother Amelia McElwee Jackson also are members of the will survey.
48 Casey and Otken, Amite County , Mississippi Vol. I, p. 78.
49 In the 1850 census of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana, B.F. Dixon was enumerated with his first wife Jane Norwood Dixon and their three children Sarah, Lucius, and Elizabeth. The census indicates that he had $5000 in personal property, not including land or slaves he might have owned. Dixon and his first wife may have had more children before her death in March 1854, but only Sarah and Lucius were listed in the 1860 census. Elizabeth Dixon, however, is included in B.F. Dixon's 1869 will. If he attended church with Aletha during his marriage, Ebeneezer Baptist Church makes no mention of Benjamin F. Dixon. He did become a member of Galilee Baptist Church in the early 1860s after her death and his remarriage. He is purported to be buried in that church's cemetery. (Will of B.F. Dixon, 1869, Amite County Wills, Vol. II, p. 214; Causey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol II, pp. 246-250.)
50 The Norwoods of East Feliciana figure prominently in three of the families discussed in this study. Robert Germany, brother of Elizabeth Germany Land Craft, married Caroline Norwood in June 1847. Caroline's older sister Jane E. S. Norwood married Benjamin F. Dixon as his first wife in September 1841. She died in 1854 at the age of twenty-nine. Caroline and Jane's brother Abel John Norwood would marry Amanda Buckholtz, daughter of Victoria Batchelor Buckholtz Street in March 1850. Their niece Caroline Norwood married Victoria Street's son and Amanda's half brother Thomas P. Street in September 1860. (Amite County Marriages, East Feliciana, Louisiana Marriages)
51 Amite County Probate Record, Vol. 22, pp. 248-50.
52 Will of B.F. Dixon, 1869, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 214.
While census records indiate that they lived in the same household, B.F. Dixon did not choose to mention any of his step children from either his marriage to Aletha or his third marriage to Julia A. Rogers. This was not uncommon in the survey for while step families may have had great affection for each other, the children would have already inherited from their own fathers.
53 The Abstract of Godspeed's Mississippi records that Nathan Land was born in 1762.
54 1830 U.S. Census in, Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol II, p. 212. This census indicates that only two men, one aged between thirty and forty, the other between seventy and eighty lived in that household. Although Nathan Land could be the elder man, because he lived for another eighteen years it is more likely that he was the younger and in his late thirties.
55 Will of Nathan Land, 1845, Amite County Will Book, Vol II, p. 2.
56 1850 U.S. Census.
57 Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 127.
58 Land Conveyance Records in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol I, p. 245.
59 Among these holdings were a "Ladies Workstand" (a frame for sewing or a dressmaker's dummy), eighty pounds of white sugar in the larder, and agricultural resources such as seventeen ploughs, twelve cotton sweeps, and eight mules; the seventy-two slaves and the farm equipment listed in the inventory indicate that the Land / Craft homestead was a full-scale plantation. (Amite County Probate Records, Vol. 18, pp. 198-199.)
60 Amite County Probate Record, Vol. 18, pp. 198-199.
61 Will of Elizabeth R. Craft, 1853, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 44.
62 Ibid.
63 Salmon, Inheritance in America, p. 95.
64 The administration records of the estate of Francis Wren, husband of Rebecca Gayden Wren Batchelor, are preserved in the Amite County Archives. The will was written in what was then Wilkinson County, dated March 21, 1804, and probated October 1805. Wrens lists as his heirs his wife Rebecca, sons John, Francis, and George Gayden, daughter Elizabeth Wren, and stepdaughter Theny Lee. The mention of this stepdaughter may indicate that Rebecca may have been married even before Wren. (Wills and Administrations, Vol. 1, pp. 139-141.) Rebecca's son John Wren may be the same John V. Wren who was married to testatrix Elizabeth Wren.
65 After this marriage, Thomas Batchelor was appointed guardian to George Gayden Wren, one of Rebecca's two son's by her dead husband Francis Wren. The guardianship of her older son Francis V. Wren was granted to Robert J. Lowery. (Abstract of Orphans Court Record, Vol. I, listed in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 388.)
66 Entry Book I, Land Claims, Amite County Mississippi.
The 1810 Mississippi Census indicates that George Gayden, George L.Gayden, and Thomas Batchelor lived on adjoining properties. Within a few years of migration, this family was already well established. The census records that the elder George Gayden owned seventeen slaves, his son George L. one, and his son in law Batchelor owned twenty. (Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 342.)
67 Estate of George Gayden, 1819, Amite County Archive File 70.
68 Will of George Gayden, Amite County Will Book, Vol I, pp. 1-2.
69 James Madison Batchelor, Thomas Agrippa Gayden Batchelor, and Napoleon Bonaparte Bachelor.
70 Mary Anne Harriet Batchelor had married J.G. Lea when she was fourteen years old, but was a widow when she married Rev James Smylie in April 1829. She died the following year when she was twenty. (J. Paul Mogan, Amite County Cemeteries, p. 394.)
71 1830 Census, in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 212.
72 Daughters of the American Revolution Family Records: Mississippi Revolutionary Soldiers, p. 33-34.
73 Amite County Land Grants, Book I, listed in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I.
74 Orphans Court Record Book 4, Volume 5, p. 111.
The 1810 census indicates that Jacob Buckholtz was the owner of twelve slaves. (Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 343)
75 Land Conveyance Record, in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi,Vol. I, p. 314.
76 Elizabeth Morgan had inherited a portion of her father George Gayden's estate. Elizabeth Harrell was Victoria's mother's daughter from her first marriage. All three of Victoria's daughters from her marriage to Abel Buckholtz were married by 1850. Eldest daughter Harriet lived with her husband, farmer and native New Yorker Franklin Hitchcock in the northern part of the county near Zion Hill. Harriet would die within the next eight years. Middle daughter Rebecca married planter-lawyer James R. Galtney and lived on his family property near Liberty. Amanda was newly married into the Norwood family of East Feliciana Parish, Louisiana and had moved to be with her husband across the state line.
77 Victoria had at least two more children by Henry Street: sons Thomas Parke Street and Charles Napoleon Street. Both would survive their mother, but Charles would die soon after the end of the Civil War. Victoria's daughter Harriet Buckholtz Franklin had died sometime after 1850.
78 Will of Victoria C. Street, 1858, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 89.
79 Will of Victoria Street, 1858, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 90. Son Thomas Parke Street carried out his mothers wishes for in the 1870 census the then retired lawyer Henry G. Street continued to live with this only surviving son. Henry died in August 1879 and was buried in the family cemetery next to his wife Victoria. The house and lands remain in the possession of Thomas Parke Street's daughter Katie Street Lewis' descendants. In 1860 Thomas Parke Street had married Emily Kate Norwood, his half sister Amanda Buckholtz Norwood's sister in law. (Feliciana Marriage Records; Amite County Cemeteries)
80 Susan Webb did not include her husband William Y. Webb in her 1910 will.
81 1850 Census, in Casey and Otken, Amite County, Mississippi, Vol. I, p. 77.
82 Inventory of Slaves belonging to Nancy M. Daniels, May 19, 1851, Amite County File 54.
83 Out of the seventy-nine women's testaments, only one other will, written by widow Jane Blanchard Moore Caston in 1841, was a nun cupative will. Hence, it is possible that most of the women were able to write their wills at the courthouse or with the assistance of some form of legal counsel. Five Amite County men, most of whom died in the 1840s, wrote nun-cupative wills.
84 Will of Nancy M. Sleeper, 1860, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 128.
85 Amite County Archive File 178.
The inclusion of this sewing machine in her inventory sheds a little light into one aspect of Nancy Sleeper's life. Not only does it indicate that most of her clothing was sewn at home--most women at this time had their clothes made within the household--but that she probably operated the machine herself. Sewing machines were still relatively expensive for the home sewer before the Civil War and most housewives would not have entrusted a slave with this piece of equipment. The machine would have allowed her to keep up with the increasingly voluminous and complicated styles of the decade and also to provide well made clothes for her children. Gideon Sleeper may well have worn tailor made clothes himself. The sewing and mending of clothes would have been a time consuming task for any nineteenth century woman with a young family, even one with the assistance of at least eight slaves. Nancy Sleeper's contemporary, Zion Hill resident and diarist Frances Cain, included some aspect of clothes manufacture in almost every diary entry written between 1853 and 1857. (Diary of Frances Ann Cain of Zion Hill, Amite County, Mississippi. [Privately Published by J. Paul Mogan)
86 The Sleepers honored Nancy by naming their first daughter, born in 1861, Nancy Caroline Sleeper. They had at least four more children before 1870, despite Sleeper's service in the 4th Mississippi Cavalry during the war.
87 Three of the six wills probated between 1864 and 1870 include slaves because they were actually written before the Confederate defeat. The wishes of Temperance Jackson Wilkinson could not be carried out after her death because her will, written in 1855 but probated in 1869 consisted entirely of the distribution of thirty slaves she no longer owned. She must have been able to hire some labor force or else recruit her sizable family in the fields for she possessed over 700 pounds of cotton and a farm full of foodstuffs at the time of her death. (Will of Temperance Wilkinson, 1869, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, 199; Inventory of Temperance Wilkinson, 1869, Amite County Archive File 200.)
88 Richard Bates, Jr., the father-in-law of future testatrix Louisa P. McKenney Bates, had been the third wealthiest man in the county in 1850 according to that year's census. When he died in 1867, after losing all of his slaves, his personal posessions, not including his extensive lands, were still worth nearly $6000. (Inventory of estate of Richard Bates, Jr., Amite County Archive File 11.)
89 In their 1874 and 1884 wills, widows Elceba Lea Wall Bates and Eliza Wilson Cox left $500 cash to each of their many heirs. The childless Elceba Bates bequeathed at least $4500 in cash and distributed her possessions among nine nieces and nephews but did not include any of her stepchildren from her two marriages. Elceba Bates later added a codicil to her will stipulating that $1000 from her estate was to be used to establish a The Lea Female Institute in neighboring Pike County, "as a donation to female education." (Will of Elceba Bates, 1874, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 272-277; Will of Eliza Cox, 1884, Amite County Will Book, Vol II, p. 284.) Elceba Lea Wall Bates had migrated to Amite County along with her parents Zachariah Lea and Sabrina Clay Lea when she was a little girl. Elceba had married twice, was the second wife of Richard Bates, Jr., and the step mother of Henry M. Bates, Sr., the husband of future testatrix Louisa P. McKenney Bates. Elizabeth Hudson Goolsby Gunby Jenkins, the mother of married testatrix Aletha Dixon, died a widow at the age of ninety in 1890 leaving extensive real estate, money, and railroad stock. (Inventory of Elizabeth Jenkins, 1896, Amite County File 96.) The only non-American testatrix, Albertine Astron, divided all the property she owned in Amite County and her native Sweden between her three children. (Will of Albertina Astron, 1898, Amite County Will Book, Vol. II, p. 310.)
90 Chapter 42, The Rights of Married Women: Capacity of Married Women. ¤ 1167. "The common law, as to the disabilities of married women, and its effect on the rights of property of the wife, is totally abrogated, and marriage shall not be held to impose any disability or incapacity on a woman, as to the ownership, capacity to make contracts, and do all acts in reference to property which she could lawfully do, if she was not married; but every woman now married, or hereafter to be married, shall have the same capacity to acquire, hold, managae, control, use, enjoy and dispose of all property, real and personal, in possession or expectancy, and to make any contract in reference to it, and to bind herself personally, and to sue and be sued, with all the rights and liabilities incident thereto, as if she was not married. ¤ 1168. Husband and wife may sue each other. ¤ 1169. A Married woman may dispose of her estate, real and personal, by last will and testament, in the same manner as if she were not married. (J.A. P. Cambell, preparer, The Revised Code of the Statute Laws of the State of Mississippi [Jackson, Mississippi, J.L. Power, State Printer, 1880], p. 339.)
91 Inventory of estate of Nancy Sites, 1871, Amite County File 175.=
92 Leonard Sites lived for at least another ten years. His will, written before Nancy's death, was not probated in Amite County until October 1881.
93 Her other sister, Harriet Buckholtz Hitchcock, predeceased their mother.
94 Nancy Buckles' plantation, slaves, and farming implements were sold at her request by public auction after her death. A December 1858 bill of sale records that her movable property brought $6431.08 to her estate. (Inventory of estate of Nancy Buckles, 1858, Amite County Archive File 171.)
95 Casey and Otken, Amite County Mississippi, Vol. III., pp. 251-2.
Thomas may have initially stayed out of the war because according to the 1860 census, he managed his deceased mother's estates. His work may have been considered vital to the war effort. Thomas Street and Charles Street served in the "Amite County Defenders" Company K of the 33rd Mississippi Regiment. The company fought in Franklin, TN, New Hope Church, and Atlanta.
96 None of the records available on Amite or any of the surrounding counties give any indication as to whose children these nieces of Rebecca Galtney were. They may have been the daughters of her deceased sister Harriet Buckholtz Hitchcock.
97 This may be part of her father Abel Buckholtz's estate; she would have been the sole owner because both of her sisters and co-heirs were dead. Rebecca Galtney, unfortunately, did not mention where this property was located.



    CHAPTER 1: A Circle of Neighbors and Kin - PART A  1839-1858
      CHAPTER 1: A Circle of Neighbors and Kin - PART B   1859-1860
    CHAPTER 2: The Civil War & After
    CHAPTER 3:  Town Matrons and Store Fronts





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