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National Progress Report on Agricultural Meteorology
1991
- 1994

 

POLAND

 

To Commission for Agricultural Meteorology

of the World Meteorological Organization

 

Compiled by the Agrometeorological Service

of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management

 

Warsaw, December, 1994

 

________________________________

            1. REPORTS ON ANY CHANGES, AS FAR AS AGROMETEOROLOGY IS CONCERNED, IN THE ORGANIZATION OF

1.1. National Meteorological Services.

In the reported period no more significant changes in the organization of agrometeorology in Poland were observed. Problems of agrometeorology have been still  dealt with Polish Agrometeorological Service belonging to Institute of Meteorology and Water Management.

1.2. Other agencies or institutions.

Theoretical and practical agrometeorological research work is carried out in the universities and various experimental departments and institutes associated with agriculture (see p.6).

1.3. Training and education facilities.

The program of education at agricultural universities has be en extended, in the curriculum more emphasis is now being given to the education in the field of applied ecology and natural environment. The two years postgraduate studies in agricultural meteorology are now available at the universities. Four agrometeorologists had 3 to 6 week training in agrometeorology in Israel under WMO fellowship. The staff of operational agrometeorological service was trained on the use of microcomputer and of some application software such as dBase, LOTUS, CLICOM, etc.

2. AGROMETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

2.1. Expansion or the network or agrometeorological stations.

The strict budgetary limits have not enabled any substantial changes and development in the network of agrometeorological stations and in their programme of observations. Specialistic network of agricultural-experimental posts (ROLDO) and network of phenologicaI observers were liquidated in 1992. For operational agrometeorological service the following networks are still working:

·  Special network of agricultural and meteorological posts (ROLMET) providing visual observation results concerning soil moisture, state and development of plants, progress in the field works, plant disease and pests, appearance and productiveness of farm well. These data relate to the defined reporting areas and are transferred to IMWM every 10 days in bulletin code form. At the full vegetation period one post transfers a number of 70-80 various informations. Ca 300 observation posts have been operating.

·  Network of standard synoptical stations. All the stations are equipped with personal computer during reported period. One Automatic Weather Station has be en installed.

·  Network of climatological stations. - Network of rainfall posts.

In addition, meteorological stations have been installed at the selected scientific institutions, too. They have been operating special programs associated with the topical investigative subjects.

2.2. New instruments, new type and methods or agrometeorological observations.

None.

3. NEW AGROMETEOROLOGICAL AND AGROCLIMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH

3.1. Influence or meteorological factors on the growth: development and yield of  agricultural crops (heat. radiation. moisture and other factors).

Studies on effect of meteorological factors on the growth, development and yields of the farming, fruit-growing, vegetable-growing and medical plants (Herbs) have been conducted at the institutions listed under 6. The basis for their work are most frequently the field experiments. more rarely the laboratory ones or the observation data from the observational network of IMWM (standard observations as well as the ones covered under 2). At the analysis of observational material most frequently methods of mathematical statistics have been applied. It is aimed to make that aside from the cognitive values, results of research works were of a practical significance and could be applied for the production, regionalization of plant species, for agrotechnical recommendations, on cultivations, instructions on fertilizations, protective measures, technique of crop (harvesting) and so on.

3.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and for assessment of present conditions.

Agrometeorological service of IMWM has prognostic models based on statistic relationships, which are used in the development of the yielding prediction and phenological forecast. IMWM is continuously carrying out works on the perfection of prediction methods and the elaborations aiming at determining methods for prediction yields of small area are developed in numerous research centers. Among others the research on climatic variation of farming plant yields is conducted at the Institute of Soil Science and Cultivation of Plants.

3.3. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research.

Numerous researches aiming at getting to know the agroclimate of individual regions of Poland, regionalization of cultivated plants taking into account climatic and soil conditions, effect of area configuration on plant vegetation etc. have been developed. The new problem in Poland is drought. Many institutes provide research to define its conditions.

3.4. Research into agrometeorological methods for agrotechnical practices.

Much attention has still been paid to the research aiming at defining water demand by plants and defining the norms for field irrigation (watering) in various country regions for defining efficiency of artificial rains use for plants and activity of mineral fertilizing depending on weather conditions. The works on above Iisted problems were carried out mainly at Academy of Agriculture, Institute of Land Reclamation and Grasslands Farming and Institute of Soil Science and Cultivation of Plants.

3.5. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock.

In the scope of the effects of meteorological the works have been conducted mainly by Academy of Agriculture and Polish Academy of Sciences .

3.6. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather.

The problems of plant protection against unfavorable meteorological conditions in the aspect of yield risk have been dealt with mainly the Academy of Agriculture in Szczecin and agricultural institutions - mainly the Institute of Pomonology and Floriculture at Skierniewice. The methodical works have been developed on the determination of criteria for occurrence intensity and extent of various meteorological phenomena harmfulness as: ground frost, hail atmospheric and soil thaw, drought, heavy rains, etc. have been developed. Greater attention should be paid to the works associated with the analysis of harmfulness of various intensity ground frosts in the orchards blossoming period.

 3.7. Agrometeorological conditions for the development or crop and livestock pest and diseases.

Agrometeorological conditions for the development of plants' diseases and pests are the subject of interest for the Institute of Plant Protection and some specialistic institutes as the Institute of Pomology and Floriculture, Institute for Potato Research, Research Institute of Vegetable Crops. It is aimed at defining the statistical relationship - between meteorological elements and intensity as well as spreading out diseases ­mainly of a fungus origin - and pests. Moreover, it is aimed at selecting regions and endangered in various degree with the occurrence of diseases and pests depending on meteorological conditions. Automatic - signaling stations are used to measure meteorological elements in studied plants stand, record and to signal the occurrence of the harmful conditions.

3.8. Research into meteorological conditions affecting the pollution or the biosphere.

The problems of the effects of meteorological on pollution of biosphere have been mainly considered in the aspect of air and water pollution spreading in case of industrial plants being located in a different way (order).

            4. CHANGES IN AGROMETEOROLOGICAL SERVICES FOR AGRICULTURE

4.1. Service structure.

No greater changes in the organization and ways of agrometeorological service for agriculture in Poland are observed. Meteorological service for the whole country has been supervised and conducted by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management. Specialistic activity of a service character has been carried out also by other Institutes.

4.2. Types and forms or service (type or information. forecasts and special surveys for assessing agrometeorological conditions for agricultural crops and livestock).

Agrometeorological Service of IMWM provides information for agriculture and other production management bodies, agricultural research centers and other users through the press and other mass media. Various forms of activity adapted to the users' demands have be en developed. Special weather predictions for the farmers are developed. PhenologicaI forecasts, yielding size predictions, reports on characteristics and calculations for the past periods' expertise's, and other communiqués have been issued. Various elaborations of a wide interest to scientists have be en published for many years:

- Agrometeorological Bulletin for the preceding of the decade;

- Monthly Agrometeorological Review;

- Agrometeorological Characteristics for the Seasons;

- Agrometeorological Characteristics for the Year.

The contents of the above publications were already covered in detail in the previous reports. With the progress in research works the contents of the publications have been gradually enriched by introduction of the new characteristics illustrating the course of plant vegetation against the background of means from many years periods, and plant growth and development estimation. Some special information is provided on request from clients.

4.3. Service methods (provision of agrometeorological forecasts and other services for agriculture).

No more essential changes were observed in the methods. The source of original information on which the activity of IMWM agrometeorological service has been based, is the material from the measuring and observational network. This was discussed under 2. Moreover bulletins SYNOP from about 50 meteorological stations embracing, aside the basic groups, the additional groups with information on sunshine duration time on soil temperature height 5 cm and depth of the ground frost are published. Also short term medium, term and long term weather forecast, information on ground water table, and elaboration covering natural bases for agricultural production, historical meteorological and phenological data developed in the form of norms, indices, charts, etc. are utilized.

While analyzing vegetation conditions, the speed of plant growth and development, size of yielding crop's state for agriculture needs numerous relationships (mainly statistical) are used. The relationships are obtained from experimental data. The criteria and relationships which are the basis for development prognosis on winter groups vegetation periods, time of heading or blossoming and ripening of rye, winter wheat, winter rape and oat, as well as times of winter wheat spreading in the autumn time, estimation of potato blight occurrences conditions, and conditions harvest of grain and grasses from grasslands were discussed in the preceding reports.

Agrometeorological service of IMWM continues to issue the predictions of the following plants yields: rye, winter and spring wheat, spring barley, oat , winter rape, sugar beets and potato. Prognoses have been developed following prognostic models prepared at IMWM and Institute of Soil Science and Cultivation of Plants. They comprise usually the sets of equations describing effects of standard meteorological elements (characterizing the light. thermal and humidity conditions) in various parts of vegetation cycle on yields. They also take into account the soil conditions and agrotechnics advancement. The applied methods allow to develop yield predictions for each of the above listed cultivations at least three times during vegetation period. The prognoses are developed in monthly intervals: for winter plants from 1st May, for spring plants from 1st June, and for root crops from 1st July. The verifiability prognoses of main national yields are usually good or very good.

4.4. Collaboration with other institutions (including important achievements).

Agrometeorological service of IMWM cooperates with all agricultural research centers. Cooperation includes the exchange of measurement and observation results, exchange of accomplished works, joint realization of the studied problems. In the operation service aside from its own methods of yield prognoses IMWM utilizes the methods developed by Institute of Soil Science and Cultivation. And indices for estimation moisture conditions are developed by Academy of Agriculture in Wroclaw. In addition agrometeorological service of IMWM bas be en working in a close contact with Ministry of Agriculture, with broadcasting agricultural editorial offices of some newspapers mainly for the farmers, etc.

5. THE USE OF AGROMETEOROLOGICAL (METEOROLOGICAL) CLIMATOLOGICAL INFORMATION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND MONITORING OF ITS ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

The monitoring of the economic efficiency it not made in Poland.

6. THE NAME(s) AND ADDRESS(es) OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE AND/OR OTHER BODIES, THE RESULTS OF WHOSE WORK ARE DESCRIBED

·    Main Cultivar Testing Center

province Sroda Wielkopolska, 63-022 Slupia Wielka

·    Institute of Forestry Research

ul. Wery Kostrzewy, 00- 362 Warszawa

·    Institute of Land Reclamation and Grassland Farming

Falenty, province Piaseczno, 05-530 Raszyn

·    Institute of Meteorology and Water :Management

ul. Podlesna 61,01-673 Warszawa

·    Institute of Pomology and Floriculture

ul. Pomologiczna 18, 96-100 Skierniewice

·    Institute of Soil Science and Cultivation of Plants

Osada Palacowa, 24-100 Pu3awy

·    Research Institute of Vegetable Crops

ul. 22 lipca 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice

·    Institute for Potato Research

75-100 Bonin k/Koszalina

·    Institute for Zootechnics in Poland

ul. Sarego 2,31-47 Krakow

·    Institute of Geography University of Warsaw

ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-325 Warszawa

·    Institute of Plant Protection

ul. Miczunna 20,60-318 Poznan

·    Institute of Growing and Acclimatization of Plants

Radzikow, 05-870 Blonie kIW arszawy

·    Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography

ul. Grodzka 64, 31-044 Krakow

·    Institute for Inland Fishery, Department for Pond Fishery

Zabieniec, 05-500 Piaseczno

·    Institute of Geography and Spatial Organization Polish Academy of Science

ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-325 Warszawa

·    Academy of Agriculture in Wroclaw

ul. M.C.-Sk3odowskiej 42, 50-369 Wroclaw

·    Academy of Agriculture in Lublin

ul. Akademicka 13,20-934 Lublin

·    Academy or Agriculture in Poznan

ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan

·    Academy of Agriculture in Szczecin

ul. Janosika 8, 71-424 Szczecin

·    Hugo Kollotaj Academy of Agriculture in Krakow

ul. Mickiewicza 21,31-120 Krakow

·    Academy of Agriculture and Technology in Olsztyn

Korotowo bl. 21, 10-957 Olsztyn

·    Academy of Agriculture and Technology in Bydgoszcz

ul. J.OIszewslciego 20, 85-225 Bydgoszcz .  

·    Agricultural University of Warsaw

ul. Rakowiecka 26/30,02-528 Warszawa

 

   

Zbigniew Rutkowski 

aktualizacja: 20 stycznia, 2008

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