Progress Report on Agricultural Meteorology
1991 - 1994
To Commission for Agricultural Meteorology
of the World Meteorological Organization
Compiled by the Agrometeorological Service
1. REPORTS ON ANY CHANGES, AS FAR AS AGROMETEOROLOGY IS CONCERNED, IN THE ORGANIZATION OF
1.1. National Meteorological Services.
In the reported period no more significant changes in
the organization of agrometeorology in
1.2. Other agencies or institutions.
Theoretical and practical agrometeorological research work is carried out in the universities and various experimental departments and institutes associated with agriculture (see p.6).
1.3. Training and education facilities.
The program of education at agricultural universities
has be en extended, in the curriculum more emphasis is now being given to the
education in the field of applied ecology and natural environment. The two
years postgraduate studies in agricultural meteorology are now available at the
universities. Four agrometeorologists had 3 to 6 week training in
2. AGROMETEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS
2.1. Expansion or the network or agrometeorological stations.
The strict budgetary limits have not enabled any substantial changes and development in the network of agrometeorological stations and in their programme of observations. Specialistic network of agricultural-experimental posts (ROLDO) and network of phenologicaI observers were liquidated in 1992. For operational agrometeorological service the following networks are still working:
· Special network of agricultural and meteorological posts (ROLMET) providing visual observation results concerning soil moisture, state and development of plants, progress in the field works, plant disease and pests, appearance and productiveness of farm well. These data relate to the defined reporting areas and are transferred to IMWM every 10 days in bulletin code form. At the full vegetation period one post transfers a number of 70-80 various informations. Ca 300 observation posts have been operating.
· Network of standard synoptical stations. All the stations are equipped with personal computer during reported period. One Automatic Weather Station has be en installed.
· Network of climatological stations. - Network of rainfall posts.
In addition, meteorological stations have been installed at the selected scientific institutions, too. They have been operating special programs associated with the topical investigative subjects.
2.2. New instruments, new type and methods or agrometeorological observations.
3. NEW AGROMETEOROLOGICAL AND AGROCLIMATOLOGICAL RESEARCH
3.1. Influence or meteorological factors on the growth: development and yield of agricultural crops (heat. radiation. moisture and other factors).
Studies on effect of meteorological factors on the growth, development and yields of the farming, fruit-growing, vegetable-growing and medical plants (Herbs) have been conducted at the institutions listed under 6. The basis for their work are most frequently the field experiments. more rarely the laboratory ones or the observation data from the observational network of IMWM (standard observations as well as the ones covered under 2). At the analysis of observational material most frequently methods of mathematical statistics have been applied. It is aimed to make that aside from the cognitive values, results of research works were of a practical significance and could be applied for the production, regionalization of plant species, for agrotechnical recommendations, on cultivations, instructions on fertilizations, protective measures, technique of crop (harvesting) and so on.
3.2. Development of methods for agrometeorological forecasting and for assessment of present conditions.
Agrometeorological service of IMWM has prognostic
models based on statistic relationships, which are used in the development of
the yielding prediction and phenological forecast. IMWM is continuously
carrying out works on the perfection of prediction methods and the elaborations
aiming at determining methods for prediction yields of small area are developed
in numerous research centers. Among others the research on climatic variation
of farming plant yields is conducted at the
3.3. Macroclimatic, mesoclimatic and microclimatic research.
Numerous researches aiming at getting to know the agroclimate of
individual regions of
3.4. Research into agrometeorological methods for agrotechnical practices.
Much attention has still been paid to the research
aiming at defining water demand by plants and defining the norms for field
irrigation (watering) in various country regions for defining efficiency of
artificial rains use for plants and activity of mineral fertilizing depending
on weather conditions. The works on above Iisted
problems were carried out mainly at
3.5. Influence of meteorological factors on livestock.
In the scope of
the effects of meteorological the works have been conducted mainly by
3.6. Protection of plants and livestock against adverse weather.
The problems of plant protection against unfavorable
meteorological conditions in the aspect of yield risk have been dealt with
Agrometeorological conditions for the development or crop and livestock pest
3.7. Agrometeorological conditions for the development or crop and livestock pest and diseases.
Agrometeorological conditions for the development of
plants' diseases and pests are the subject of interest for the
3.8. Research into meteorological conditions affecting the pollution or the biosphere.
The problems of the effects of meteorological on pollution of biosphere have been mainly considered in the aspect of air and water pollution spreading in case of industrial plants being located in a different way (order).
4. CHANGES IN AGROMETEOROLOGICAL SERVICES FOR AGRICULTURE
4.1. Service structure.
No greater changes
in the organization and ways of agrometeorological service for agriculture in
4.2. Types and forms or service (type or information. forecasts and special surveys for assessing agrometeorological conditions for agricultural crops and livestock).
Agrometeorological Service of IMWM provides information for agriculture and other production management bodies, agricultural research centers and other users through the press and other mass media. Various forms of activity adapted to the users' demands have be en developed. Special weather predictions for the farmers are developed. PhenologicaI forecasts, yielding size predictions, reports on characteristics and calculations for the past periods' expertise's, and other communiqués have been issued. Various elaborations of a wide interest to scientists have be en published for many years:
- Agrometeorological Bulletin for the preceding of the decade;
- Monthly Agrometeorological Review;
- Agrometeorological Characteristics for the Seasons;
- Agrometeorological Characteristics for the Year.
The contents of the above publications were already covered in detail in the previous reports. With the progress in research works the contents of the publications have been gradually enriched by introduction of the new characteristics illustrating the course of plant vegetation against the background of means from many years periods, and plant growth and development estimation. Some special information is provided on request from clients.
4.3. Service methods (provision of agrometeorological forecasts and other services for agriculture).
No more essential
changes were observed in the methods. The source of original information on
which the activity of IMWM agrometeorological service has been based, is the
material from the measuring and observational network. This was discussed under
2. Moreover bulletins SYNOP from about 50 meteorological stations embracing,
aside the basic groups, the additional groups with information on sunshine
duration time on soil temperature height
While analyzing vegetation conditions, the speed of plant growth and development, size of yielding crop's state for agriculture needs numerous relationships (mainly statistical) are used. The relationships are obtained from experimental data. The criteria and relationships which are the basis for development prognosis on winter groups vegetation periods, time of heading or blossoming and ripening of rye, winter wheat, winter rape and oat, as well as times of winter wheat spreading in the autumn time, estimation of potato blight occurrences conditions, and conditions harvest of grain and grasses from grasslands were discussed in the preceding reports.
service of IMWM continues to issue the predictions of the following plants
yields: rye, winter and spring wheat, spring barley, oat , winter
rape, sugar beets and potato. Prognoses have been developed following
prognostic models prepared at IMWM and
4.4. Collaboration with other institutions (including important achievements).
service of IMWM cooperates with all agricultural research centers. Cooperation
includes the exchange of measurement and observation results, exchange of
accomplished works, joint realization of the studied problems. In the operation
service aside from its own methods of yield prognoses IMWM utilizes the methods
5. THE USE OF AGROMETEOROLOGICAL (METEOROLOGICAL) CLIMATOLOGICAL INFORMATION IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION AND MONITORING OF ITS ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY
The monitoring of
the economic efficiency it not made in
6. THE NAME(s) AND ADDRESS(es) OF THE METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE AND/OR OTHER BODIES, THE RESULTS OF WHOSE WORK ARE DESCRIBED
· Main Cultivar Testing Center
province Sroda Wielkopolska, 63-022 Slupia Wielka
ul. Wery Kostrzewy, 00- 362 Warszawa
Falenty, province Piaseczno, 05-530 Raszyn
ul. Podlesna 61,01-673 Warszawa
ul. Pomologiczna 18, 96-100 Skierniewice
Osada Palacowa, 24-100 Pu3awy
· Research Institute of Vegetable Crops
ul. 22 lipca 1/3, 96-100 Skierniewice
· Institute for Potato Research
75-100 Bonin k/Koszalina
Institute for Zootechnics
ul. Sarego 2,31-47
ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-325 Warszawa
ul. Miczunna 20,60-318
· Institute of Growing and Acclimatization of Plants
Radzikow, 05-870 Blonie kIW arszawy
ul. Grodzka 64, 31-044
· Institute for Inland Fishery, Department for Pond Fishery
Zabieniec, 05-500 Piaseczno
ul. Krakowskie Przedmiescie 30, 00-325 Warszawa
ul. M.C.-Sk3odowskiej 42, 50-369 Wroclaw
ul. Akademicka 13,20-934
Academy or Agriculture in
ul. Wojska Polskiego 28, 60-637 Poznan
ul. Janosika 8, 71-424
ul. Mickiewicza 21,31-120
ul. J.OIszewslciego 20, 85-225
ul. Rakowiecka 26/30,02-528 Warszawa
aktualizacja: 20 stycznia, 2008